Thursday, February 21, 2019

What You Should Know Concerning A Genetically Engineered Organelle

By Nancy Burns

The small structures that perform particular functions in animal and plant cells are referred to as organelles. They are deeply and firmly fixed in the walls of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Organelles are similar to the internal organelles found in the human body. The functions of organelles enable cells to work as they should. Examples are controlling reproduction and growth of cells as well as generating energy. Basic processes such as respiration in cells and photosynthesis also occur in these structures. Examples of organelles include the vacuoles, nucleus, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and chloroplast.

Organelles can be modified through a process known as genetic engineering. Scientists can use genetic engineering to change the way genes are structured. This purposeful modification manipulates the genes of organisms directly. The cells of an organism can function in a new way if they have a genetically engineered organelle. The organism can have unique traits that it did not have in the past.

There are multiple copies of organelles in cells and they have their own DNA. When an artificial chromosome or foreign gene is inserted into an organelle, the cell multiplies it, leading to the production of new cells with many copies of the inserted gene. In certain situations that can be induced, the cells of plants also raise the number of copies of their organelles. For this reason, the genetically engineered organelles can secure many copies of the inserted DNA, leading to a high level of expression of the engineered genes.

Genetic engineering, particularly that of plant chloroplasts is beneficial. One benefit if that the level of productivity in plants that have undergone this process increases. Farmers can therefore produce more food cost effectively. If food is cheap, then it would be easier to feed people worldwide.

The genetic engineering of organelles also allows for foreign DNA to be transferred from one generation to the other. Organelles are transferred as matching copies through maternal inheritance. They are transferred as matching copies from female animals to the offspring or from plants to the seeds without any changes. For this reason, the stability of genetically engineered characteristics from one generation to the next one is assured.

Genetic engineering makes it possible to modify animals or plants. Their maturity can occur at a quicker rate. It can also allow maturity to take place outside of the typical and favorable growing conditions.

Organisms can also be genetically modified to resist the typical factors that cause death. For example, scientists can alter the set of characteristics, which are unique to the DNA of plants so that they can resist pests. This way, the plants can grow and mature without requiring pesticides. Scientists may also modify the set of characteristics, which are unique to the DNA of an animal so that it will not suffer from the health problems that usually affect that breed or species.

Genetic engineering also enables researchers to develop certain characteristics in animals and plants so that they can be more appealing for use or consumption. For instance, the researchers can modify organelles so that animals can produce more milk or meat. Through genetic engineering, new products can also be created by adding or bringing together different profiles. For instance, the profile of potato plants can be modified so that they can produce a more significant number of nutrients per kilo calorie.

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